Storytelling, Influencia cultura – estilo de vida nas narrativas

Contoterapia Colunas gregas

Written by Anna Rossetto

30/11/2020

Have you ever stopped to think how do lifestyle and culture influence the types of narratives we use? walk pensando bastante nisso ultimamente. Principalmente depois que passei a devorar livros e mais livros de storytelling. Dos mais variados (A mágica do Storytelling, A ciência… O segredo… O mistério heheheh. O que você quiser de variação de nome seguido da palavra storytelling, tem) , percebi o quanto essas narrativas apenas demonstram, como, tentamos controlar nosso mundo à partir de nossas experiências pessoais. 
Will Storr no seu livro “The Science of Storytelling: Why Stories Make Us Human, and How to Tell Them” (algo como “A Ciência do Storytelling, Porque Histórias nos Fazem Humanos e Como Contá-las” e você pode encontrar uma palestra dele no TED Talk on here) when talking about culture and character he mentions that we westerners, influenced in large part by the Greek way of thinking, tend to tell stories of individual overcoming. Individual self-confidence was the key to success and ended up becoming the ideal culture. According to some psychologists, the panorama of Ancient Greece, rocky, with hills and coasts so poor for large groups of farmers to thrive, caused them to develop more individual skills to succeed. That person who cured furs, made olive oil or fished for example, needed to develop self-confidence in an attempt to control his own world in the best possible way. 
Yes, because that is what we are doing when we search for stories. We want information that allows us to control our own world.

Para os Gregos

A busca pela glória pessoal, perfeição e fama acabou ficando bem evidente ao observarmos a maneira como eles enxergaram o mundo através de seus legados e narrativas. Eles criaram a competição do eu contra o eu, as Olimpíadas, praticaram a democracia por cinquenta anos e se tornaram tão auto focados que se sentiram compelidos a criar uma história de alerta para esse auto centramento – a história de Narciso. Esse conceito do indivíduo como o locus do seu próprio poder, livre para escolher o que quiser ao invés de ser escravo do desejo de tiranos, destinos ou deuses, foi revolucionário. Mudou a maneira como as pessoas pensavam sobre “causa e efeito”. 
It is like every good story needs to bring contrasts and polarities in its narrative to be memorable, so are the contrasts and polarities that enable us have conscience.

Outro Extremo

Por isso, vamos para um outro extremo, vamos comparar essa impetuosa liberdade e auto amor que emergia no leste do planeta, o oriente. As paisagens férteis da China antiga eram perfeitas para os esforços de grandes grupos e seus encontros. Neste contexto, a melhor maneira de controlar o mundo era assegurando que, ao invés do individuo, o grupo fosse bem sucedido. E isso significava manter sua cabeça baixa e ser parte do time. Então, essa teoria coletiva de controle conduziu a uma ideia coletiva de “eu”. Pensa em Confúcio, que nos descrevia coisas como “um homem superior é aquele que não vangloria à si mesmo preferindo a ocultação de suas virtudes, esse homem cultiva uma amigável estabilidade e  possibilita que um estado de equilíbrio e harmonia exista com perfeição”. 
For the Greeks, the main agent of control in the world was the individual, for the Chinese, it was the group. For the Greeks, reality was made up of individual parts, for the Chinese, reality was a field of interconnected forces. And from these different ways of seeing reality, we have different story formats. Greeks generally have three acts in their stories - beginning, middle and end and are usually talking about heroes who have gone through a crisis, need to make an effort to reach a resolution. They are unique heroes battling terrible monsters and returning home with their treasures. This was the propaganda for the nation saying that an individual could really change everything. 

Oriente

For a period of almost two thousand years, hardly any autobiographical narrative can be found in China. The stories that exist are stripped of personal opinions, as if the “protagonist” was positioning himself, not at the center of the narration, but at the marginal, as passers-by who are watching what is happening. Instead of following a sequence of cause and effect, the narratives are made from different points of view, as in Ryu-no-suke Akutagawa's story 'In a bamboo grove' in which the events around of the murder are recounted from the perspective of several witnesses, who are somewhat contradictory to each other, leaving the reader to decipher the meaning for himself. In these stories, we are never given an answer, there is no closure, nor necessarily the famous happy ending as we conceive it here. You are left with a question to decide, then, for yourself. This is the pleasure of the story for them. 

Ocidente

Nas histórias ocidentais o foco esta no individuo e ele tendia a ganhar seu status de herói de uma forma como se fosse o primeiro do grupo. Nas histórias orientais, luta-se contra o mal, a verdade prevalece e o amor conquista tudo. Em um sentido em que a pessoa que se sacrifica se torna um herói, toma conta da família, da comunidade, do país. No ocidente apreciamos os esforços individuais e a vitória enquanto que no oriente aprecia-se as narrativas que buscam a harmonia. 
Now let me ask you a question. What is the best narrative?
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If you answered neither or both, very well, you were not caught in the catch of duality or exclusion. There is no better or worse, there are different needs here. And there is here in Contoterapia a workshop that invites you to creation de contos biográficos, o que acaba proporcionando uma auto consciência. 

Concluindo

And finally I ask you, what are the stories that control your world?
I invite you to remember the most memorable stories for you. Were they more individual or more collective? I'm sure you will get to know yourself better when you think about the stories you like best. 
A big hug,
Anna

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